Latin name: Mammoth
size: up to 4m in length
mass: 5 - 15t
Older: 40 - 70 years
Appearance: about 2m long tusks, brown fur
Sexual dimorphism: Yes
Nutrition type: Herbivore (herbivor)
food: Grasses, leaves, plant material
distribution: North America, Europe, North Asia
original origin: Siberia
Sleep-wake rhythm: diurnal
habitat: Cold Steppes (Tundra)
natural enemies: no
sexual maturity: ?
mating season: ?
litter size: 1 cub
social behavior: Herd animal
Threatened with extinction: Extinct
Further profiles of animals can be found in the Encyclopaedia.
Interesting facts about the mammoth
- The mammoth describes a multiple species genus of elephants, which in a period of 5.7 million years BC. until about 4000 years BC. the earth populated.
- The remains of the oldest mammoth ever found date back to about four million years ago.
- In the course of the earth's history there existed a total of five different types of mammoths.
- As the largest and oldest mammoth species is the South Elephant, reached the shoulder heights of about five meters. His tusks alone were four meters long. The South Elephant originally came from Africa, but came to Eurasia and later to North America after long migrations about 1.5 million years ago.
- This early species was replaced about 750,000 years ago by the steppe mammoth, which was presumably a direct descendant of the southern elephant. The steppe mammoth was only marginally smaller, had tusks up to five meters in length and could weigh up to ten tons. In contrast to the southern elephant, it was perfectly adapted to the harsh weather conditions of its habitat due to its dense hairiness.
- In North America, at the same time developed from the southern elephant, the slightly smaller, but with even longer tusks equipped prairie mammoth.
- The Wollhaarmammut populated large parts of Siberia and reached via the so-called Bering Land Bridge also to North America. Cold and snow could not harm him because of the dense fur and the pronounced undercoat.
- The woolly mammoth died only 4,000 years ago and therefore lived at the same time as the first humans who hunted it intensively.
- As the smallest species is the native of California dwarf mammoth, the shoulder heights reached a maximum of 1.8 meters. A small population survived on a Siberian island and died only 4,000 years ago.
- As herbivores, mammoths mainly fed on grasses, leaves and shrubs. Scientists suspect that they were busy searching for food all day long.
- In order to be prepared for the cold, mammoths, in contrast to today's elephants, had small ears and tails, which prevented them from freezing to death.
- Female mammoths and their calves lived in herds led by a lead cow.
- The bulls lived as loners and joined only in the mating season to the herds of cows.
- Scientists suspect that both Stone Age persecution and climate variability eventually led to the mammoths becoming extinct.