The Holocene describes that section of the Earth's history that began about 12,000 years ago and continues to this day. As the second series of the Quaternary, the Holocene is significantly influenced by a warming or re-warming of the earth, which followed the icing of the previous Pleistocene. However, scientists still do not agree on the exact timing of the onset of the Holocene. This series within the Quaternary is divided into Altholozän, Middle Holocene and Late Holocene. The name of the age, the outdated as well alluvium, Post-glacial or post-glacial, is derived from two ancient Greek terms, which translate as "completely new" mean and refer to the importance of this section on the present. The name was originally introduced as "Holocene" by the French scientist Paul Gervais in the late 1960s, but only recognized internationally twenty years later. In English, the term "Present" prevailed at the same time, which is still used today.


The Holocene is climatically defined today by scientists as a very calm and consistent period compared to previous eras of Earth's history, characterized by a prolonged warming period within the Quaternary Ice Age. The global temperature fluctuations during the Holocene averaged only about 1 ° C. It was only at the beginning of the 20th century that a slow turnaround towards global warming began, which continues to this day and is at least partially anthropogenic, ie caused by humans becomes. It was only through the stable climatic conditions of the Holocene that man, from a hunter-gatherer with a nomadic way of life, developed into a sedentary creature, who cultivated agriculture and later livestock, and founded strong social societies in permanent colonies.

Flora and Fauna (plants and animals):

The Holocene describes in terms of the history of humanity the period that includes the development from the Neolithic to the present day. Within the Holocene, modern scientists have since the turn of the millennium defined the concept of the Anthropocene, which is to describe the period from the beginning of the industrial revolution around 1800 and is shaped by the climatic change of the environment caused by industrialization.
Also a significant part of the today existing animal and plant world developed in the Holocene. After the glaciation of the Pleistocene and renewed warming, vast forests of beech and pine trees gradually displaced the glacial tundra. It formed until about 5000 years ago, the so-called boreal vegetation zone, which is characterized by oak mixed forests with a high population of oak, ash, elm, linden and maple. In the so-called Subatlanticum, the last climatic stage of the Holocene that began around 2500 years ago, the development of flora and fauna as we know it today was finally completed.