General

Neolithic


The Neolithic Age ...

The Neolithic or that Neolithic describes that phase in the history of humanity, marked by the transition from a predominantly nomadic way of life to settledness and the associated construction of settlements. The Neolithic begins about ten thousand years ago and passes into the Bronze Age four thousand years before Christ's birth.
In the Neolithic period, there were significant changes in lifestyle and related developments that are today summarized under the terms of the "Neolithic Revolution" or the "Neolithic Bundle". While in Europe the name Neolithic is in use, this phase is internationally recognized as New Stone Age designated. This name is due to the English anthropologist John Lubbock. This was based on the ability of humans to grind stones and thereby transform them into different commodities.

The evolution of man in the Neolithic period:

With the emergence of Homo sapiens, which had a significantly larger brain volume than the early species of the genus Homo, the achievements of the people in the Neolithic era developed rapidly. Homo sapiens of the late Middle and Early Neolithic times already resembled modern man in appearance and was endowed with an equally sophisticated religious, social and emotional sensibility. Funeral rites and burial mounds created especially for the deceased bear witness to a pronounced death cult. It is believed that even the Cro-Magnon man, as the first representative of Homo sapiens, if born into the world today, would learn the ability to behave like a modern man and learn our cultural habits.
Scientists now suspect that Homo sapiens was forced to adapt to his lifestyle due to major climatic changes. The cooling and temporary glaciation gradually led to a lack of food, as many plants became extinct due to the low temperatures and many species that were important as food migrated or died out. The move to sedentary people did not occur in all regions at the same time, but started from Mesopotamia and gradually spread from there across Europe. Throughout the New Stone Age, there have been similar developments in human lifestyles in both Asia and much of Central America. Homo sapiens developed a social sensibility that resulted in speculation far beyond the Neanderthal cohesion within a family by founding settlements where not only clans but also larger groups of people lived together.

Nutrition of man in the Neolithic period:

In the Neolithic, man gradually gave up his way of life as a hunter-gatherer, gaining the skills to feed independently of nature and the seasons through agriculture and the domestication of wild animals. The Neolithic man had become a farmer who kept sheep, goats and cattle and thereby gained not only access to meat but also to milk. This opened up new possibilities for nutrition and brought with it techniques for the preservation of food. At the same time, Neolithic people also developed opportunities to stock crops such as grain or legumes as food and thereby have food available throughout the year.
Grain types that have been cultivated since the Neolithic period include spelled, barley, einkorn and emmer. The crushing of the grains was carried out by the operation of rubbing stones, which was accompanied by a considerable physical effort. When the plow was invented during the Neolithic period, the field work was much faster and enabled significantly higher yields. However, daily life and agriculture have involved considerable effort, so people's life expectancy has been barely more than thirty years.
In order to protect the livestock, the man in the Neolithic already held dogs that had evolved from the in the Middle Stone Age domesticated wolf. From the late Mesolithic finds of bast fabric made nets, fishing and remains of small boats. They are proof that fisheries have been pursued in many regions, opening up new valuable protein sources. The year-round wide range of different foods was accompanied by a significant increase in the population.

Accommodation and way of life:

The sedentary character of the Neolithic essential necessitated the construction of permanent dwellings. These were first built from clay, later as log cabins and post huts. The first elongated four-walled houses built of stone also date back to the Neolithic period and provided sufficient protection against wind, moisture and cold. In order to create food supplies and to protect them from moisture, fungal infestation and pests, people made different vessels made of ceramic, which were decorated with ornate paintings. With regard to the Neolithic Revolution, the ability of Homo sapiens to develop new technologies and possibilities in a community and through the resulting lively exchange, in order to constantly improve its direct environment, must be mentioned. He protected his settlements and villages from flooding by creating dams and ditches. Channel systems have been used to direct water directly from the sources to the fields to protect crops from dehydration and ensure a high-yield crop. Fortifications with trenches and palisades provided protection against intruders.
The arts and crafts developed continuously and brought not only elaborate wood carvings and painted objects, but by the invention of the loom and the spindle also made of fabric garments. Livestock husbandry gave access to new tissues such as sheep wool and goat skins, which were also used to make clothing. The constant pursuit of better living conditions led Homo sapiens to engage in lively trade and exchange with people from other villages and small states. This not only brought him into contact with new foods and practical everyday objects, but also with innovative ideas and cultural customs.